Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Literature review on entrepreneurial finance Introduction Literature review on entrepreneurial finance IntroductionResearch ProposalBackgroundBank FinanceFinancing PreferencesStudy Aims and ObjectivesResearch StatementResearch QuestionsRelated Introduction Research Proposal Although it appears to be contentious whether availability of finance impacts on entrepreneurial entry to markets (Kim et al., 2006, p. 5), it is likely to be a critical factor in determining the early success or failure of any new start-up venture. What is more, it has also been implicated as an important factor in determining the ongoing success of the business (Marlow Patton, 2005, p. 717; Capelleras et al., 2008, p. 688). The literature would also appear to indicate that the balance between the availability to and uptake by entrepreneurs of different forms of finance may have wider effects on the national economy (Deidda Fattouh, 2008, p. 6). Therefore it may be important to gain a better understanding of the level of availability of different forms of finance to start-up ventures, along with different factors affecting their uptake by entrepreneurs. Background This section of the proposal provides a brief overview of the literature on the different financing options available to start-up ventures, focusing on bank finance and venture capital. Bank Finance There is a lack of recent research available as to trends in funding of entrepreneurs in The Netherlands. Understanding of such trends in other countries, where extensive research has taken place in the field of entrepreneurial finance, could result in the understanding as well as the applicability of general findings to The Netherlands and any other country. Evidence confirms that banks continued to provide a major source of finance for SMEs in the 1990s (Hughes, 1997, p. 151) although it would be expected that the recent financial crisis could have impacted this (Udell, 2011, p. 103). While relaxing financial constraints may allow greater access to bank financing for entrepreneurs, it may also encourage excessive entry to the market and may also undermine bank-monitoring incentives according to Arping et al. (2010, p. 26). Evidence from developing nations such as South Africa suggest that access to formal bank financing is likely to be a determinant of start-up rates in any given region (Naude et al., 2008, p. 111). There was however, little consideration in this paper as to whether availability of venture capital had any moderating effect on this relationship, and other sources suggest that this may be less important than availability of human capital (Kim et al., 2006, p. 5). There may not only be issues associated with availability of bank finance, but also access to it. There is some suggestion within the literature that women may be somewhat disadvantaged in securing bank finance when compared to their male counterparts (Marlow Patton, 2005, p. 717; Carter et al., 2007, p. 427). Other authors have disputed this, although it is possible that these differences could be accounted for by different geographical foci (Sabarwal et al., 2009, p. 1). There is also some suggestion that differences may exist between ethnic groups in access to bank finance (Smallbone et al., 2003, p. 291) while other personal characteristics of entrepreneurs could also create barriers (Irwin Scott, 2010, p. 245). The relationship between banks and entrepreneurs could be key to enabling access. Research from Italy suggests that there could be trust issues between young entrepreneurial firms and bank managers. This may be particularly true where there is perceived to be heavy monitoring, and may lead to lower levels of demand for bank financing (Howorth Moro, 2006, p. 495). There is some evidence that the ownership of the bank itself may influence the relationships it forms with businesses of all types, including start-ups. In particular, the evidence suggests that firms are more likely to maintain exclusive relationships with state-owned banks, which may indicate greater levels of trust than compared to foreign or privately owned banks (Berger et al., 2008, p. 37). The literature identifies some strategies that may be effective in helping to overcome these barriers. For example in emerging economies, networking has been implicated as an important strategy in helping small to medium enterprises (SMEs) secure bank financing. This more specifically relates to networking with customers and government officials (Le Nguyen, 2009, p. 867). There is some suggestion that firms in developed countries are more likely to incorporate in order to access formal bank financing (Acs et al., 2008, p. 10). Financing Preferences It has been speculated that young businesses may require more than just monetary input, but also require access to expertise. This argument has been proposed predominantly in the context of technology firms, who may lack experience in research and development. Such businesses may benefit from expertise provided by venture capital firms who possess expertise and skills in this area (Keuschnigg Nielsen, 2005, p. 222). It would however be suggested that this may extend into some other sectors on the basis of research by Kim et al. (2006, p. 5) which found that availability of human capital was instrumental in determining entrepreneurial entry to markets. Quantitative surveys conducted amongst start-up firms has suggested that various characteristics of those ventures may determine the structure and types of finance which are utilized, including size, assets, growth orientation and owner characteristics (Cassar, 2004, p. 261). When selecting venture capital, businesses must consider contracts carefully, as these will have a significant impact on how the firm is able to exit at a later stage (Cumming, 2008, p. 1947). de Bettignies and Brander (2007, p. 808) argue that venture capital may be preferred to bank finance when venture capital productivity is high and entrepreneurial productivity is low. Winton and Yerramilli (2008, p. 51) suggest that there may be different criteria for determining preference, based on preference for risky or safe continuation practices and relative costs associated with finance options. For example, they suggest that if venture capital companies lower their cost of capital, this may entice some entrepreneurs to switch from safe continuation strategies utilizing bank finance, to riskier strategies utilizing venture capital. Study Aims and Objectives It would appear that many of the studies discussed in the previous section have much to contribute to a better understanding of how entrepreneurs select between bank and venture capital financing. However, most have focused on only limited aspects of the issue. A literature review that aims to take a wider perspective may therefore be useful in providing a better understanding of what may be a relatively complex decision-making process. In particular, most of the evidence available has examined the availability and access to bank financing, with much less information available on comparison to venture capital availability and access. Yet contrasting the benefits and limitations of the two may be important in enabling entrepreneurs to make an informed decision when structuring their start-up finance arrangements. Research Statement The research aims to conduct a review of the literature that will enable comparison of benefits and limitations of bank finance and venture capital. Research Questions The following research questions will be addressed by the review: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Are there differences in the availability of and access to bank financing and venture capital to businesses? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Does the availability and access to different types of finance impact choices made by entrepreneurs? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Are there common barriers to bank finance and venture capital or are some barriers specific to one option? When successfully answered, the findings from the previous questions should give answer to the following question by means of a recommendation: Are there any strategies that may enable entrepreneurs to overcome these barriers? References Acs, Z.J., Desai, S. Klapper, L.F. (2008) What does Ã¢â¬ËEntrepreneurshipÃ¢â¬â¢ data really show? A comparison of the global entrepreneurship monitor and world bank group datasets. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 4667. Accessed 13 May 2011, from: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1233043. Ã Arping, S., Loranth, G. Morrison, A.D. (2010). Public initiatives to support entrepreneurs: Credit guarantees versus co-funding. Journal of Financial Stability, 6(1): 26-35. Berger, A.N., Klapper, L.F., Peria, M.S.M. Zaidi, R. (2008). Bank ownership type and banking relationships. Journal of Financial Intermediation, 17(1): 37-62. Capelleras, J.-L., Mole, K.F., Greene, F.J. Storey, D.J. (2008). Do more heavily regulated economies have poorer performing new ventures? Evidence from Britain and Spain. Journal of International Business Studies, 39(4): 688-704. Ã Carter, S., Shaw, E., Lam, W. Wilson, F. (2007). Gender, entrepreneurship, and bank lending: The criteria and processes used by bank loan officers in assessing applications. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3): 427-444. Cassar, G. (2004). The financing of business start ups. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2): 261-283. Ã Cumming, D. (2008). Contracts and exits in venture capital finance. The Review of Financial Studies, 21(5): 1947-1982. Ã de Bettignies, J.-E. Brander, J.A. (2007). Financing entrepreneurship: Bank finance versus venture capital. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(6): 808-832. Deidda, L. Fattouh, B. (2008). Banks, financial markets and growth. Journal of Financial Intermediation, 17(1): 6-36. Howorth, C. Moro, A. (2006). Trust within entrepreneur bank relationships: Insights from Italy. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(4): 495-517. Hughes, A. (1997). Finance for SMEs: A UK perspective. Business and Economics, 9(2): 151-168. Irwin, D. Scott, J.M. (2010). Barriers faced by SMEs in raising bank finance. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour Research, 16(3): 245-259. Keuschnigg, C. Nielsen, S.B. (2005) Ã¢â¬ËPublic policy for start-up entrepreneurship with venture capital and bank financeÃ¢â¬â¢. In V. Kanniainen C. Keuschnigg (Eds.) Venture Capital, Entrepreneurship, and Public Policy. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, pp. 221-250. Ã Kim, P.H., Aldrich, H.E. Keister, L.A. (2006). Access (not) denied: The impact of financial, human, and cultural capital on entrepreneurial entry in the United States. Small Business Economics, 27(1): 5-22. Le, N.T.B. Nguyen, T.V. (2009). The impact of networking on bank financing: The case of small and medium-sized enterprises in Vietnam. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(4): 867-887. Ã Marlow, S. Patton, D. (2005). All credit to men? Entrepreneurship, finance, and gender. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(6): 717-735. Ã Naude, W., Gries, T., Wood, E. Meintijies, A. (2008) Regional determinants of entrepreneurial start-ups in a developing country. Entrepreneurship Regional Development, 20(2): 111-124. Ã Sabarwal, S., Terrell, K. Bardasi, E. (2009). How do Female Entrepreneurs Perform? Evidence from Three Developing Regions. World Bank. Accessed 15 May 2011, from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGENDER/Resources/336003-1240628924155/Sabarwal_Terrell_Bardasi_Entrep_All_CWE.pdf. Smallbone, D., Ram, M., Deakins, D. Aldock, R.B. (2003). Access to finance by ethnic minority businesses in the UK. International Small Business Journal, 21(3): 291-314. Udell, G.F. (2011). SME financing and the financial crisis: A framework and some issues. In G. Calcagnini I. Favaretto (Eds.) The Economics of Small Businesses: An International Perspective. London: Springer Heidelberg, pp. 103-113. Ã Winton, A. Yerramilli, V. (2008). Entrepreneurial finance: Banks versus venture capital. Journal of Financial Economics, 88(1): 51-79.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
The Day My Dad Didnt Make it Home from Work - by Marianne Worley, Business Writing Consultant at The Essay Expert
The Day My Dad Didnt Make it Home from Work - by Marianne Worley, Business Writing Consultant at The Essay Expert [Reposted with the permission of the very talented business/marketing writer Marianne Worley, consultant at The Essay Expert. This poignant story was originally posted on her blog, Marketing Matters and Other Stories. I didnt even have to think before asking her if I could post it to The Essay Experts blog on Memorial Day.] The day was Monday, April 21, 2008. My phone rang just after 9pm. I checked the caller IDÃ¢â¬âit was my brother Nolan. Instinctively, I knew something was wrong, very wrong. My Dad had been in an accident and was being taken to a hospital about 20 miles north of my house. We didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know anything more. I quickly got dressed, jumped in my car, and hit the gas pedal. About 5 minutes later, my brother called again. Now Dad was being transported by helicopter to the much larger hospital just a few miles from my house. I got off the freeway and drove back the other way. My brother, sister-in-law, and I arrived at the hospital around the same time. The helicopter was still in flight, so we staked out seats in the busy emergency room to wait, still perplexed about what had happened to our Dad. After my stepmom and sister rushed in, we learned the whole story. My Dad usually came home from work around 5 or 6, so when it started to get dark and he still wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t home, my stepmom picked up the phone to make some increasingly frantic calls. My Dad was notorious for sporadically answering cell calls. As a contractor, he was constantly breaking and losing mobile phones. She wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t surprised when he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t answer, so she dialed his friends and clients. He had left the job site hours earlier, but no one knew where he was. My stepmom and sister decided to drive to the job site to look for him. They found his empty work truck on the side of the road with the driverÃ¢â¬â¢s side door open. They called 911 and nearby friends who could help with the search. There was a small creek parallel to the road with a steep bank covered in thick, muddy vegetation. My athletic sister charged down the hill and found him lying unconscious in the creek, pale and covered with dirt. The paramedics pulled him up on a rescue stretcher and loaded him into the helicopter. This process doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take a few minutes, like it does on TV and in the movies. The rescue actually took more than an hour. The helicopter finally arrived, but still we knew nothing about his condition. We assumed it was a stroke, or something similar. When they finally let us in to see him, we discovered that he had suffered some sort of episode, possibly a seizure, and was experiencing pronounced weakness on one side of his body. It looked like a stroke, but he was stable. So they admitted him and scheduled an MRI for the next morning. The following day, the doctors confirmed that the MRI results showed that it looked like a stroke. We felt relieved. We knew a brain tumor would be a much more deadly diagnosis. But they still wanted to get a new MRI, with contrast, the next day to be sure. On Wednesday, April 23, 2008, our lives changed forever. The new MRI showed that it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a strokeÃ¢â¬âit was a brain tumor. They called in a neurosurgeon for a consultation. My education in neurology commenced that day. I carried a notebook at all times. I scribbled down details from the doctors during the day and did online research at night. Over the next 7 months, my Dad had a biopsy and was diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive form of brain cancer. Our doctor decided to treat with radiation and chemotherapy, not surgery. I knew that without surgery, the 6-month survival rate was almost zero. When I pressed him, he said he could do the surgery if we got a second opinion from one of the neurosurgeons he recommended. After many phone calls, I got an appointment with one of the top experts in the country at Cedars-Sinai in Los Angeles. The neurosurgeon just needed to see my DadÃ¢â¬â¢s (now enormous) medical file, along with all of his MRI results. We got his opinion, and my Dad had surgery to remove the tumor. Although the surgery was successful, he still needed radiation and chemo to stave off regrowth, which is incredibly common. I researched clinical trials and spoke to doctors at UCLA and UC San Francisco. My Dad didnÃ¢â¬â¢t qualify for any trials and his prognosis was grave. By September, the tumor was back, bigger than before. We tried some experimental chemo drugs, but nothing helped. My Dad wasted away before our eyes, until we finally called in hospice care in November. On December 3rd, the hospice nurse told us that the end was near, so we gathered together to say goodbye. We stayed up pretty late, but finally succumbed to our own fatigue and reluctantly went to bed. Just before 4:30am, I awoke suddenly and sat bolt upright. I went downstairs and the nurse told me she had just checked on my DadÃ¢â¬âhe was still hanging in there. When I went to his bedside, I touched his hands and face. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think he was breathing, so I woke up my stepmom, who had decided to take a quick nap just minutes before. He was gone. We all gathered around his bed and cried again. A week or so later, my sister Whitney and I, always the DaddyÃ¢â¬â¢s-Little-Girl types, decided to get tattoos to celebrate our DadÃ¢â¬â¢s life. She got an elegant Ã¢â¬Å"WÃ¢â¬ and I got an infinity sign with a Ã¢â¬Å"WÃ¢â¬ in the middle. Worley forever. My Dad was never called to battle in Vietnam, but that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t fight a war. So on this Memorial Day, I remember all who have fallen in war, including the continuing war on cancer. ____________________ I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t met anyone who hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been touched in some way by cancer. The next time youÃ¢â¬â¢re thinking about making a cash donation to a charity, please consider one of the organizations in the fight against cancer, including the American Brain Tumor Association. Thanks for reading this very personal story. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sharing it because it shaped who I am today. Many thanks to my fellow blogger The JackBÃ¢â¬âhis post from yesterday inspired me to write this. I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t met anyone who hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been touched in some way by cancer. The next time youÃ¢â¬â¢re thinking about making a cash donation to a charity, please consider one of the organizations in the fight against cancer, including the American Brain Tumor Association. Category:UncategorizedBy Brenda BernsteinMay 31, 2011 8 Comments Nancy Anderson says: May 31, 2011 at 12:50 pm What a beautiful story. I too lost my dad to cancer and as I read your words, I could feel myself going through the same feelings, thoughts and anguish. God bless your father and your family. Thank you for sharing your story with us. Log in to Reply The Essay Expert says: May 31, 2011 at 1:55 pm Youre very welcome Nancy. This was Mariannes story. My father died 14 years ago after a week-long battle with pneumonia, so Mariannes piece spoke loudly to me. Im so glad it is being appreciated. Log in to Reply Alejandra Leiva says: October 6, 2016 at 10:43 am Hi The Essay Expert, I was wondering how I can submit a question about some words. Here I have one: Do we stand in the snow or on the snow? Log in to Reply Brenda Bernstein says: October 6, 2016 at 11:12 am Hi Alejandra! If you are standing on top of the snow, in snow shoes or skis for instance, you would be standing on the snow. If you are waist-deep in snow you would be standing in the snow. Or if you are in a snowstorm you would be in the snow. I hope that helps! Log in to Reply Alejandra Leiva says: October 6, 2016 at 4:27 pm Awesome that helps a lot! Could you help me with another question? Which of these is correct? Or what do they mean? count with me count on me Brenda Bernstein says: October 22, 2016 at 6:54 am Count on me means you can rely on me. Count with me would mean something like count to 10 with me! The Essay Expert says: May 31, 2011 at 1:55 pm So true Pedro. Even a week-long battle, like the one my father fought, is a battle indeed. Log in to Reply The Essay Expert says: May 31, 2011 at 4:40 pm Thank you Jan. Its amazing how many this disease has touched. My heart goes out to you. Log in to Reply
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Effects of Internet Social Networking on the Lives of Teenagers - Essay Example Social networking sites most commonly in use today are Facebook and Twitter. Most teenagers necessarily visit these websites several times in a day all over the world. According to a recent research generated by the Pew Internet Project, as many as 93 per cent of the teenagers in America between the age of 12 years and 17 years are regular users of the internet, and 55 per cent of such teenagers spends most of the time using social networking websites (Hall). Social networking sites cause a lot of troubles in the life of teenagers. As a result of the expanded social circle because of internet social networking, teenagers are prone to fall in the hands of pedophiles and kidnappers. Internet social networking increases the interaction of a teenager with others. In fact, many studies have found the social networks of internet using teenagers to be much larger than others that do not use the internet. Not only their social circle increases, but also the way they communicate changes. Nowa days, many teenagers can be heard speaking to one another in slang. The time that teenagers spend socializing with others in the virtual world is no less effective than the real world for building relationships and socializing with others. Everyday, hundreds of teenagers fall prey to pedophiles and end up getting into dangerous real world activities. Anonymity is a special feature of the social networking sites. This allows the unscrupulous people to approach the immature teenagers and involve them in harmful activities by conversing with them. The predators can easily project themselves as teenagers. This allows them to draw the teenagers into harmful activities in the real world along with the virtual world. They send messages to the teenagers via these websites. Many teenagers respond to them. The predators may use social networking sites to drive the teenagers into the business of drug dealing or child pornography.
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Symbolic Picture - Essay Example n this particular image, the photographer illustrates the desperate conditions of Darfur as well as the idea that it is possible to make a difference. The black and white image depicts a black child in front of a wall made of irregular posts and straw. The child is caught in the act of splashing water over his head and the water is seen streaming down the childÃ¢â¬â¢s very skinny body and splashing in droplets in the foreground. To refer to the child as Ã¢â¬ËheÃ¢â¬â¢ is a simplification made for discussion but is not necessarily actual truth. The child depicted has very short, close-shaved hair on his head and no clothing to designate gender. The photograph provides just the hint of a belly button at the bottom edge of the image, but no further indication is provided of gender or clothing. The child is wearing two strings of white beads, which could be an indication of female gender but could also be a sign of social status or wealth. The child also wears a hospital-style bracelet which could indicate that he has access to care beyond that of the average child. There are a number of ways in which the image conveys the idea that the situation in Darfur is desperate. The background is stark, conveying a sense of a simple sand floor and poor building materials. The child is completely isolated in the image, with no sense that there is anyone else in the vicinity. This idea is reinforced by the closed eyes of the child directed downward. The most eloquent statement in the image, though, is the extreme thinness of the child. Each individual rib can be counted, the arm joints are nearly skeletal in detail and the childÃ¢â¬â¢s hands seem too large for the rest of his frame. However, there are plenty of hints within the image that suggests there is still hope that things can be different. The child wears beads suggesting some form of wealth and a hospital bracelet suggesting there is some form of care underway to see to this particular childÃ¢â¬â¢s overall well-being into
Friday, January 24, 2020
Antigone: The True Tragic Hero Antigone, is the drama written by Sohpocles. There is still a great debate on who is the true tragic hero in Sophocles' Antigone, Creon or Antigone. Many people believes that it must be Antigone, herself. This is because Antigone is an outstanding example of someone who did what she thought was right, while she was among fools, many hardships, and people who were discouragingly uncourageous. When the king Creon ordered that the body of Polyneices, Antigone's brother, be left to rot unburied because he had died as a traitor, she tried to buried him even she knew that she would be punished. She believed that a dead person's soul could not rest if that person's body was not buried so she chooses to challenge a powerful Creon, the king of Thebes in order to let her brother rest peacefully. This presents a huge problem for Antigone; she feels she must obey the laws of the gods and bury her brother, but the penalty would be earthly death. To me, Antigone is a hero, what she did for her bro ther was very respectful, not many could have the strength to do so in the same situation. However, I believe the true tragic hero in Sophocles' Antigone is Creon, not Antigone. Creon, as king of Thebes, is at the top of the social ladder. Yet, not only is he king, he is also human and possesses frailties, which qualify him to make serious mistakes, and he possesses talents, which allow him also to excel. Hence, Creon is neither overly good nor bad. Appropriately, Creon's station as king place shim in a position of great power, influence and responsibility. The extent of this power was quite evident when he sentenced Antigone to death for disobeying his proclamation. Creon's tragic flaw was his hubris or his pride and arrogance in the face of divine powers. His downfall began when he denied the basic divine right of burial to Polyneices and was cemented when he condemned Antigone for her opposition to his law. When one closely examines Antigone's reasons for burying her brother, it becomes clear that she was simply demonstrating her love, honor, and loyalty to her family. However, the reason that Creon is angered is that he feels injured and insulted that Antigone flagrantly and publicly disobeyed him.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
| | What Causes Desertification? -Overgrazing Overgrazing was not as large of a problem long ago because animals would move in response to rainfall. People would move with the animals so it prevented overgrazing in such areas. Now, humans have a steady food supply so they do not have to move about. Therefore, people use fences to keep their animals in one place which causes overgrazing. (Desertification, 2001) -Farming of Average Land Farming of average land is causing desertification worldwide. Farmers are clearing average land, and using it which takes away the richness in the soil.People should let the average land replenish itself before farming. (Desertification, 2005) -Destruction of Plants in Dry Regions Destruction of plants in dry regions is causing desertification to occur. People are cutting down tress to use them as a source of fuel. Once all these trees are cut down there is nothing to protect the soil. Therefore, it turns to dust and is blown away by the wind. (Desertif ication, 2005) -Incorrect Irrigation in Arid Regions Causes a Build Up of Salt in the Soil Incorrect irrigation is commonly used in poorer areas.Farmers are using canal irrigation and other poor techniques because of the lack of water. This type of irrigation causes a build up of salt in the soil. (Desertification, 2005)Ã The Effects Of Desertification -Soil becomes less usable The soil can be blown away by wind or washed away rain. Nutrients in the soil can be removed by wind or water. Salt can build up in the soil which makes it harder for plant growth. -Vegetation is Lacked or Damaged Loosened soil may bury plants or leave their roots exposed.Also, when overgrazing occurs, plant species may be lost. -Causes Famine Places that have war and poverty are most likely to have famine occur. Drought and poor land management contribute to famine. -Food Loss The soil is not suited for growing food; therefore the amount of food being made will decline. If the population is growing, this w ill cause economic problems and starvation. -People near Affected Areas Desertification can cause flooding, poor water quality, dust storms, and pollution. All of these effects can hurt people living near an affected region. The Facts of Desertification and United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, 2000)Case Stude: The Sahel Desert In the Sahel Desert, desertification is becoming a huge problem. Around the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s, people settled into the Sahel region, in areas where there was water. This resulted in overgrazing, which is one of the greatest causes of desertification. Eventually, the perennial shrubs were destroyed because of grazing, and they were replaced by annuals. Then, the annuals were grazed out which left bare soil. A lot of the topsoil was washed away, and all that was left were rocks.Silt turned hard when it was hit by rain. Therefore, plants were not able to grow because there roots could not penetrate this hard layer. Now this region has turned to desert and it continues to expand. (Desertification, The Sahel, 2004) Records show that rainfall in Sahel has decreased and sands have shifted about sixty miles south into the area. Sahel is expanding due to lack of vegetation in the area. (Sahel, 2005) Another reason desertification is occurring in the Sahel region is because people are using the slashing and burning method to clear land.This degrades the quality of soil just like overgrazing. (Desertification-a Threat to the Sahel, 2000) Short Term Effects of Desertification in the Sahel: -Soil loses its nutrients which makes it not useful -Overgrazing destroys vegetation and without it erosion occursÃ -Land becomes salty which makes it difficult to grow crops Long Term Effects of Desertification in the Sahel: -People die of starvation -Cattle die of starvation -The soil becomes completely useless (Prospects and Problems, 2004)|
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
In Henry IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A Doll House we see the impact the minor characters have in developing the play s climax, Dr. RankÃ¢â¬â¢s role introduces the plot and influences the general readers understanding of the play. Dr. Rank is a minor character of the play. He appeared in the play regularly but yet always seemed to stay in the background, except for when he told Nora of his love for her. His mysteries and emotional baggage brings so much understanding and depth in major situations that are occurring in the play. Dr. Rank is more than just a friend of the family, his the physician of Torvald, and NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s secret admirer . Dr. Rank is a corrupt force in the play, both morally ( lack of respect of Nora s Marriage) and physical (illness). This play is set in 1879, this is important since the era provides the background for the theme of conflict within society that we see takes form in the play. When the play was released, it caused much controversy. Dr. Rank presence definitel y was a means to introduce conflict within society. His main functions in the play is to symbolize, foreshadow and introduce possible truths of marriage, life and society. He is also simultaneously breaks down the barrier between reality and deception. Foreshadowing commonly begins early in a story or play with dramatic hints, physical, and verbal hints that suggest there s more to come later. Dr. Rank is first introduced in Act I, he immediately gives insight into the conflict Nora will Face withShow MoreRelatedA Dolls House : Minor Characters Essay1212 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA Dolls House : Minor Characters The supporting characters are important in themselves because they face the same type of problemsÃâ¦(Urban Parallels). Minor characters do a fantastic job of dropping hints to the major themes at the end of any play. Noras father, Mrs. Lindes husband, Noras children, Krogstads children, and Anne Marie, the minor characters in A Dolls House, play their roles perfectly in supporting and shadowing the main characters and themes of the play. The firstRead MoreHenrik Ibsen s A Doll House1563 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages In the play, A Doll House by Henrik Ibsen, the title itself symbolizes the dependent and degraded role of the wife within traditional marriages. Ibsen portrayed the generous nature root into women by society, as well as the significant action of this nature, and lastly the need for them to find their own voice in a world ruled by men. Ibsen wrote this play in 1879, this is the era where women were obedient to men, tend the children until their husband came home, and stood by the Cult of DomesticityRead More The Practices of Dr. Rank in A Dolls House Essay examples1739 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Practices of Dr. Rank Ã In the play A Doll House, by Henrik Ibsen, the convention of marriage is examined and questioned for its lack of honesty. The play is set in the late 1800s, which provides the backdrop for the debate about roles of people in society. Ibsen uses the minor character, Dr. Rank, to help develop the theme of conflicts within society. This, in turn, creates connections with the plot. Dr. Ranks function in the play is to foreshadow, symbolize, and reflect upon theRead MoreEssay on Role of Minor Characters Within Ã¢â¬Ëa Doll HouseÃ¢â¬â¢1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRole of Minor Characters within Ã¢â¬ËA Doll HouseÃ¢â¬â¢ The role of minor characters in a play is generally to assist or influence the central characters. In Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s play, Ã¢â¬ËA Doll HouseÃ¢â¬â¢, such minor characters exist, who can change the outcome of the play. Mrs. Linde, a childhood friend of Nora, the protagonist, highlights NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s childlike and egotistic state by contrasting it with LindeÃ¢â¬â¢s selfless and sensible character. She aids in the development of plot by introducing the idea of self-satisfactionRead More Henrik Isbens A Dolls House Essay1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Henrik Ibsenamp;#8217;s A Dollamp;#8217;s House, considers a very delicate situation experienced by a Scandinavian family in 1879. Nora Helmer, the main character and adored wife of Torvald faces a life-altering dilemma. She has to decide whether to remain with her obsessive husband in his sheltered home, playing the part of a doll, or take the initiative to leave and seek out her own individuality. There are three minor characters that have a significant impact on the final decision that NoraRead MoreA Dolls House, Drama Analysis, Realism and Naturalism1235 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA Dolls House, Drama Analysis, Realism and Naturalism Topic B: Character Nora Helmer frolics about in the first act, behaves desperately in the second, and gains a stark sense of reality during the finale of Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House. Ibsen was one of a few pioneers of the new theatrical movement of realism, and accordingly he is often called the father of modern drama. The character of Nora lives in a dream world, a childlike fantasy, where everything is perfect, and everything makes senseRead MoreHenrik Ibsen a Dolls House859 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the play A Doll House, by Henrik Ibsen, the convention of marriage is examined and questioned for its lack of honesty. The play is set in the late 1800s, which provides the backdrop for the debate about roles of people in society. Ibsen uses the minor character, Dr. Rank, to help develop the theme of conflicts within society. This, in turn, creates connections with the plot. Dr. Rank s function in the play is to foreshadow, symbolize, and reflect upon the truth of life and society and to b reakRead More Womens Identity in the Early 1900s Essay1355 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Ibsen wrote this play in 1879. It is a three-act play with prose dialogue. The play takes place in the 19th century in Europe. It is a play about a woman, who struggles to find her own identity. The main point is women need treated as humans and not dolls. Women need to know their place and that they have rights. They also have duties as a wife and mother. As a wife, they need to be trustworthy and as a mother, they need to be role models. As do husbands need to respect their wife and knowRead MoreA Dolls House Character Analysis1555 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages887) This statement is from Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s play, A Doll House, is a play based in 1879, and it sets the tone of the remainder of the story. Ibsen seems to be making a statement that women need to mature and be independent before they have a family of their own. All of the women in this play leave their loved ones behind to gain their independence. IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s statement and character portrayal helps make IbsenÃ¢â¬â ¢s play take on feminist characteristics. IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s play shows that women must mature and be independentRead MoreAnalysis Of The Play A Doll House 1613 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageschanged tremendously. We can notice characters from being weak and controlled, to being strong and independent. There was always a certain behavior demanded or expected from women and they were playing their roles through their lives. But deep inside most of them wanted something more from life. A play Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll HouseÃ¢â¬ by Henrik Ibsen, poem Ã¢â¬Å"Living in SinÃ¢â¬ by Adrienne Rich, and short play Ã¢â¬Å"BeautyÃ¢â¬ by Carla Bethany introduce us to four different women characters. Living in different times, they prove